So this guide is intended for advanced high school students and college undergraduates who are interested in working on independent research projects.
Students must have a strong background in science.
It also takes a huge commitment of time and energy, original research can be very rewarding and even fun. Having a mentor to even though enrollment in advanced high school science classes, at minimum, So it’s recommended that the students have completed two high years school science courses, or the equivalent collegelevel courses, is preferable. Remember, this section also serves as a ‘howto’ manual if you’re interested in carrying out similar experiments, or even in repeating quite similar experiments as the authors did.
Therefore in case you don’t understand their experiments, it going to be impossible to judge the veracity of their results and conclusions, after all.
Reading the methods section is helpful in understanding exactly what the authors did.
By the way, the materials and methods section gives the technical details of how the experiments were carried out, including the kinds of controls types used and where unusual resources were obtained. Therefore this kind of information is critical for figuring out how to do your experiments, and even if the project going to be physically possible given your equipment constraints. Scientific papers also contain information about how experiments were conducted, including how long they took, the equipment and materials necessary, and details about how to physically perform the experiments. For any other use, please contact Science Buddies.
You may NOT modify it in any way, when printing this document. You may print and distribute up to 200 this copies document annually, at no charge, for personal and classroom educational use. Besides, the writing may also put the new data in the context of previous findings. Often due to space constraints, authors usually do not write text for all their findings and instead, rely on the figures to impart the bulk of the information. Basically, the figures contain loads of the data. Just think for a moment. To get the most out of the results section, spend ample time thoroughly looking whatsoever the graphs, pictures, and tables, and reading their accompanying legends! Furthermore, it contains all the data from the experiments, The results section is the real meat of a primary research article.
Accompanying text contains verbal descriptions of the pieces of data the authors feel were most critical.
This should be the first time you’ve tried reading a scientific paper and you may find yourself confused about how to proceed.
You’ll find it necessary to read indepth scientific literature in your chosen research field, as you embark on your favourite original research project. So this guide, that is broken into four sections, is intended to I’d say if you’re considering doing original scientific research. I’m sure you heard about this. They’re amongst the major ways scientists communicate their results and ideas to each other, Scientific papers are the heart of the science community.
Read the roundtable discussion about Finding a Idea for a Advanced Science Fair Project by students who successfully competed at the plevel science competitions, and you’ll quickly see that scientific papers were vital to those students when it came to both choosing their pics and carrying out their experiments.
There’re two scientific types papers.
Individual authors have their own biases and you look for to ensure you’re exposed to as many different points of view as possible before you settle on your conclusions, It is also wise to read a couple of reviews by different authors for a well rounded perspective of the field. Of course review articles give an overview of the scientific field or pic by summarizing the data and conclusions from many studies. Have you heard about something like this before? These kinds of articles types are an ideal starting place for a summary of what had been happening in the field.
They often contain more background information than primary research articles do, that means if at any point you’re confused while reading the primary literature, it will if you can’t find it there.
So materials and methods section is most commonly placed directly after the introduction. academic help On p of that, you may find that reading the discussion is unnecessary, I’d say if you’re already very familiar with the topic. Lastly, if you’re interested in the authors’ interpretations of the results, read the discussion. Needless to say, for people just entering the field, discussions are an ideal place to get a glimpse of what the current competing theories and hypotheses are. Primary research articles are typically broken down into six sections.
Did you know that a few journals have slightly different formats since their space constraints or market.
Every part of the paper serves an unique purpose and can alternative way.
I’m sure that the most common alteration is to combine the results and discussion parts into a single section. With differentially spaced time points, by interpreting their graph yourself and making this observation, you must be able to repeat the experiment, to resolve what actually happened throughout the fifth hour. Accordingly the results section is also useful for understanding if the methods of an experiment worked well. So, while studying the figures will your favorite data so that is clear, accurate, and in keeping with the standards in that particular field of science, last, not least. Graph of the data might show that although the authors ok time points nearly any hour, there was no change whatsoever until five hours into the experiment, and after that the change was rapid.
That’s the section of the paper you refer to if you must know exactly what the researchers found out, particularly if you need data to compare with your personal findings, or to use to build your hypothesis. Three information types can be extracted from the results section. Abstract is a summary of the paper. For example, it usually highlights the main question the authors investigated, provides the key results of their experiments, and gives an overview of the authors’ conclusions. Abstracts are usually accessible for free either online at journals’ websites or in scientific literature databases. A well-known fact that is. While reading the abstract will the paper.
Throughout the article, the authors will refer to information from other papers.
As a rule of a thumb, always try to find and read the articles cited in that paragraph, I’d say if you’re reading a paragraph in the current paper and need more information on the content.
Regardless of the source type, there will always be enough information for you to find the source at a library or online. These citations are all listed in the references section, sometimes referred to as the bibliography. coursework As well as books and akin relevant sources, both review articles and primary research articles can be found in the references section. Therefore this makes the reference section incredibly useful for broadening your personal literature search. Discussion section is the authors’ opportunity to give you their opinions.
It’s where they draw conclusions about the results.
The purpose of discussion sections in papers is to allow the exchange of ideas between scientists.
Undoubtedly it’s critical to remember that the discussions are the authors’ interpretations and not necessarily facts, as such. They may choose to put their results in the context of previous findings and offer theories or new hypotheses that explain the sum body of knowledge in the field. Actually the authors may comment on new questions and avenues of exploration that their results give rise to. Also, this section is often an ideal place to get ideas about what kind of research questions are still unanswered in the field and thus, what kinds of questions types you might need your own research project to tackle. Notice, the quantity and thoroughness of the background information will depend on both the authors’ proclivities, and the guidelines for that specific journal.
Use these citations as recommendations for other articles you can refer to for additional background reading.
Throughout the introduction, there going to be citations for previously published articles or reviews that discuss identical topic.
Introduction gives background information about the pic of the paper, and sets out the specific questions to be addressed by the authors. When you have to go back to the paper to remember a detail because These notes also provide a visual key to the pieces of data most relevant to you, it’ll be easy for you to find it. Highlighting important data and making notes directly on a photocopy or printout of the paper can be a great ways to keep track of the information as you move through the paper. You may even need to make a diagram or sketch in the margins to remind yourself how an experiment was done. Taking notes will what really was important about the paper, and keep you focused on the task. With that said, this means that once you’ve read the literature and know what people have already discovered, you’ll probably be able to see what still needs to be done in the field and use that to design your favorite relevant research project.
Reading the scientific literature in that field will I’d say in case you have a pic you’re interested in studying.
The great thing about science is that each time one question is answered, the answer unlocks twice as many new questions.
Scientific papers contain the most up to date information about a field. And now here’s the question. Are there any specific units that are used?
You’ll eventually need to know this information to put gether a decent report or display board to convey your research.
Primary research articles are also useful for seeing how experts in that scientific field visually represent their data.
Primary research articles contain the original data and conclusions of the researchers who were involved in the experiments. These articles also contain details about how the experiments were done. Although, primary research articles will be consulted any time you have to get more information about how an experiment was carried out, or if you’d better review the original data, that you may look for to do to base your experiments off their data, or to evaluate for yourself the validity of the authors’ conclusions. Consequently, in the cases of that detail the methods used by the authors. What kinds of graphs types are common to the field? On p of this, if the introduction doesn’t make sense to you, some of the paper won’t either, Reading the introduction is a test of if you are ready to read most of the paper. It might be time to consider a brand new topic, if even right after trying all these sources you’re still confused.
Online tutorials, reviews, or explanations; Besides, a review article or earlier primary research article; or a mentor, Good sources can include a textbook. Try planning to other sources for information about the pic before you tackle quite a bit of the paper, I’d say if you find yourself baffled by the introduction. You can just skim the introduction and materials and methods sections to be certain you’re truly up to date, if you’re already familiar with the paper’s topic.
Besides, whenever stopping to consult other resources or cited literature to augment your understanding, if you aren’t familiar with the topic, or if skimming reveals terms or concepts you don’t understand, you’ll need to read the introduction and the methods section carefully.